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Essays, Talks,


Poems & Plays

As the murshida of Sufism Reoriented, Dr. Carol Weyland Conner has been prolific in providing her students with experiences and explanations aimed at deepening their understanding and appreciation of being incarnate in this transformative season of Creation. She has prepared weekly classes and messages on Meher Baba’s work in this Avataric advent, on the unfolding of higher consciousness, and on the relationship between a student and their spiritual teacher.  Responding to requests from Meher Baba centers in India and the United States, she has participated in a variety of public programs. Among her teaching materials are poems and plays which dramatize these same teachings in less expository forms.


In 2021 Sufism Reoriented publishs an American translation of the biography of the Perfect Master Upasni Maharaj.


In 1922–23 Meher Baba had directed his early companions to write, publish, and sell biographies of Upasni Maharaj, focusing in great detail on the stages of inner unfolding by which a human being becomes a Perfect Master.


Meher Baba indicated at that time he wanted an English version of the book to be published because spiritual seekers, especially in America, would benefit from the information it contains about higher stages of spiritual unfolding. However, he was not able to find an adequate translator to prepare a Western edition at the time.


Ninety years later, Murshida Conner is given an initial English translation of the long out-of-print two-volume Gujarati biography. Over an eight-year period, an American editorial team assembled by Murshida Conner produces an edited and annotated version for Western readers.

Murshida Carol Weyland Conner's. introduction to:

Upasni Maharaj – Teacher of the World Teacher

Published by Sufism Reoriented


“The entire fabric of the universe serves but one purpose: the realization of God.”

— Meher Baba

We live at an extraordinary moment in universal history.

According to spiritual tradition, we now stand at the cusp of two vast epochs of time. The age now closing stretches back trillions of years to the very moment of Creation. Its completion signals the end of humanity’s spiritual childhood and adolescence. The age now dawning, equally vast, is to usher in Creation’s long-foretold maturity. We are at the threshold of a new cosmic beginning, a New Creation, characterized by new principles and a new consciousness of the unity and divinity of life never held on earth before. This unitary consciousness dissolves and supersedes the familiar illusory bipolar dimensions of life: matter and spirit, life and death, high and low, right and wrong, beauty and ugliness, East and West, and so forth. These were created to serve the evolutionary process and are sustained by the limited lower mind. In the light of this new consciousness, all apparently separate forms of life are seen, known, and felt as expressions of a single creative energy, ultimately understood by man as the ceaseless flow of Divine Love.


Upasni Maharaj, the subject of this biography, was destined to play a key role in this momentous transition. He served as teacher and guide to the new World Teacher, who was charged with laying the foundation for the sweeping universal regeneration of the coming age. This book describes in vivid detail the path of spiritual mastery traversed by Maharaj, as he was generally known, in preparation for this unique responsibility. It was a path he never consciously sought and indeed strenuously resisted. Yet it was this spiritual destiny that shaped and directed the course of his life. As the true dimensions of this divine assignment were unknown to others when this biography was written, it is helpful to review the broader background of Maharaj’s life story and the nature of the singular duty entrusted to him at this great turning point in spiritual history.


It was Upasni Maharaj’s destiny to become a Perfect Master, or Sadguru, one of five God-realized souls charged with the governance of Creation. Inwardly one in consciousness, each of these five masters holds a distinct outward office and responsibility. One among them serves as an integrator, referred to in traditional sufi literature as the Qutub-e-Irshad, the center of guidance, who directs the affairs of the universe. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this office was held by Sai Baba of Shirdi (d. 1918), the reigning figure of the closing age and the teacher of Upasni Maharaj. It was Sai Baba who guided Maharaj through the final stages of illumination during a demanding four-year apprenticeship at Shirdi, as described in this book. He then passed his spiritual authority on to Maharaj. And it was Sai Baba who, together with Maharaj and the three other Perfect Masters of the time, carried the responsibility for the descent into Creation of the World Teacher, the long-awaited Ancient One.

A Perfect Master is a human being who has attained divine consciousness. The World Teacher, or Avatar, is a divine incarnation, the direct descent on earth of God in human form, who takes birth periodically to usher in each new spiritual age. At these times the five Perfect Masters bring him into the world from his formless being, drawing a veil over his infinity, which enables him to function provisionally in the realm of duality. In this way he is born and grows to maturity as an ordinary man. When he is unveiled to his true divine nature, the Perfect Masters help him adapt his infinite consciousness to the circumstances of his advent in duality. In this instance Upasni Maharaj was the master destined to give this young divine figure the spiritual knowledge and guidance he needed to assume his role. This youth was Merwan Sheriar Irani, who would later be known around the world as Meher Baba.

When they met, in 1915, Merwan was in an extraordinary state of super-consciousness. Maharaj worked both inwardly and outwardly with Merwan for a period of seven years, sometimes seeing him only twice a month, at other times more frequently. Often they met at night in the hut where Maharaj sheltered in Sakori, a village a few miles from Sai Baba’s ashram in Shirdi. Month after month, in the quiet and solitude of the darkest hours of night, Maharaj imparted to the Avatar-to-be the cosmological principles of Creation in the highest form they could then be formulated. Patiently, Maharaj aided Merwan in his struggle to integrate his divine consciousness with normal consciousness in all the illusory realms of existence. This process brought Merwan such acute suffering that he was compelled to pound his forehead against a stone for hours at a time to relieve the pain. As their collaboration continued, Merwan sometimes secluded himself in a dark room and covered himself with excrement, much as Maharaj had done during stages of his own inner unfolding, as recounted in this volume. Throughout this arduous seven-year process, Maharaj was Merwan’s guide and companion. Finally, as their shared work neared completion, Merwan joined Maharaj in Sakori for an extended period. They met in Maharaj’s hut nearly every night for six months, sitting together behind closed doors for hours. Much later Meher Baba explained, “At the end of this period, Maharaj made me know fully what I am. He gave me Divine Knowledge.”(1)


As the last Avatar of this vast epoch of time, Meher Baba is believed by many to be the fullest and most forceful incarnation of Divinity in the record of Creation; he is the long-awaited one, destined from the very beginning to bring, at the appointed hour, a new birth of Creation itself. In this role he is sometimes called the Kalki Avatar, the destroyer of ignorance.(2) This sublime divine personality is depicted as entering Creation on a white steed. Sword unsheathed, he is poised to destroy the superannuated portions of the earth. His work is to clear away the learning of the past to make way for a diviner world. His advent sets in motion the ordained merging of heaven and earth foretold in the East by the Vedic rishis and in the West by the biblical books of Isaiah and Revelation. Through the work of the Kalki Avatar, a New Creation begins, in which a cleansed and transformed new earth will nurture and support the broader consciousness of a transfigured new humanity.


An Essential Foundation of Spiritual Knowledge

As the divinely appointed teacher of the World Teacher at this juncture of cycles, Upasni Maharaj represented the pinnacle of the cumulative spiritual understanding of the vast epoch now concluding. His principles and formulations, illustrated in this biography by the dramatic story of his life, embody the purest, most exalted exposition of spiritual truth as it had thus far been known and lived on earth. A sense of the all-embracing nature of Maharaj’s teaching is conveyed throughout the book in his insightful discourses, pointed anecdotes, and many engaging teaching stories, as illustrated, for example, in this description of his informal talks in the town of Kharagpur:

In response to the genuine devotion in those who gathered to see him, Maharaj began to give spontaneous talks, explaining the highest spiritual truths in simple down-to-earth language that everyone could understand. He spoke about the separative self and the Supreme Self, about the insensate matter that makes up the world and the divine consciousness that pervades it. What is the Earth?


What is God? What are the realms beyond this world? How are God and the world related? Maharaj lucidly and beautifully explored all these questions, speaking directly from his own experience, which he amplified with examples, illustrations, and quotations from scripture.(3)

In his seven years as Maharaj’s devoted pupil, Meher Baba received and absorbed this divine legacy in its most elevated and refined expression. He consistently honored these principles and formulations as an essential foundation of spiritual knowledge, reinforcing, culling, and clarifying them throughout his advent. He refreshed and refined many of these understandings still further in his messages and discourses and in God Speaks, his definitive book on the theme of Creation. Those familiar with these works will recognize themes from Maharaj’s talks, such as his discussion of the sleep, dream, and waking states in relation to states of consciousness and his comparison of artificial and natural light and darkness, which Meher Baba incorporated into his own explanations of the unfolding of higher consciousness.

For Meher Baba, this essential foundation of authoritative spiritual knowledge and practice was not a rigid framework; it was a starting point from which one would advance further according to the ever-evolving, progressive flow of Creation itself. As the World Teacher for the coming age, he replaced outmoded formulations and added important new integrations appropriate for the next stage of Creation’s growth. For example, outward patterns of life defining the spiritual path are now significantly changed. In the age now closing, represented by Maharaj, the most refined spiritual principles counsel an ascendant path of spiritual return. This is the traditional path of renunciation, austerities, and ritualized worship of various sorts, including veneration of divine effigies, recitation of japas and mantras, ascetic practices, pilgrimages, and prescribed acts of charity. Through these practices, one strives to attain desirelessness and detachment from the individual self and the illusory world of duality, ascending through the inner planes of consciousness with the ultimate aim of achieving mukti, or release from Creation, to merge forever in the infinite consciousness of Divinity.

For the dawning age, Meher Baba now counsels a “descendant” path, whereby the seeker realizes the divine by walking the earth in selfless service to all of its beautiful forms, in remembrance of and love for God. This now-refreshed descendant path is made possible by the general progress achieved by the whole of Creation in its godward course, boosted by the high radiant energy from the Source released in his advent by Meher Baba, which he called the breaking of his Silence. It is by this descendant path that mankind will increasingly join​ with divinity and so fulfill Creation’s destined purpose: to realize the divine life here on this earth.

With this background, one sees that this book, though cast in the form of a biography, is in fact a compendium of high gnostic truth presented in its most complete and elevated formulation as understood at this turning point in cosmic evolution.


Conceived by Meher Baba and published under his auspices, this book was one of the first projects set in motion when he began his work as a spiritual master. Between 1922 and 1924, versions of this biography were written and published in three languages, Gujarati, Urdu, and Marathi, with the editorial collaboration of distinguished literary figures of the time. In a lengthy letter to the eminent author and scholar Sohrabji M. Desai of Navsari, whom he had invited to serve as editor of the original Gujarati edition, Meher Baba summarized the book’s purpose:

The book in question is the life of a “Realized Personality” and explains all about spiritualism.(4) It throws light on the frailty of this worldly life and directs one in the way of internal bliss, which is the ideal of human existence. The publication and circulation of the work has been taken up with the idea of disseminating the instructive lessons contained therein amongst the people of all castes and creeds and educating the public mind in matters divine. It is a service in which no self-interest is involved, as the money that will be realized from the sale of these publications will be spent in bringing out further editions.(5)

A Guidebook for Western Seekers

From the outset, it was Meher Baba’s wish that an English version of the biography be prepared for readers in the West. As Mr. Desai was multilingual and had written numerous works in English, Baba raised this with him in the same letter, emphasizing the importance of a high standard of editorial excellence for this discriminating audience:

It is my desire that the English work, besides the intrinsic worth of it, should also be perfect in point of style and language. The English work, as you can understand, will mostly fall into the hands of the educated class in India; and the book, therefore, in order to impress and appeal to their materialistic minds must possess some literary worth as well. It is also intended to circulate the book in Europe​ and America, especially the latter country, which as you are aware is so very eager to know something more about spiritualism.(6)

This letter also mentions an “English sketch”, or draft, that had previously been sent to Mr. Desai for review. However, no such sample draft or manuscript has yet come to light, and no English version of the biography was published during Meher Baba’s lifetime.

Now, nearly a century later, at the inception of the new spiritual age, when tremendous changes are taking place in the world, the time has come for this important book to be made widely available to Western seekers. It seems fitting that this unique spiritual biography be brought out at this hour, in this unprecedented time of global pandemic when the COVID-19 virus, fueled by the radiant energy brought down from the Silence, pushes the world forward at an accelerated speed toward the divine destiny that the Ancient One came to manifest. The long era of reincarnational man, characterized by the egoic, limited, lower mind and the illusion of multiple separateness, will at last vanish; the radiant light of unity will dispel the veils of falsehood to shine unblemished, for the first time, on this physical earth and make its eternal home here. Accordingly, high gnostic truth, well known in the East but virtually unknown in the West, will at last be made available in its highest formulation to the English-speaking world.

In this age now dawning, the two hemispheres, the spiritual East and the materialistic West, which by divine design pursued separate arcs of growth for thousands of years, are to merge into a “unisphere” embracing a new integration of life. Those familiar with Meher Baba’s work will recall that the union of East and West was central to his Avataric agenda. Their melding is a necessary preparation for the birth of the new consciousness, which is neither material nor spiritual nor an additive blend of each—it is brand new, expressing the living experience of the unity of all Creation in God and as God in an undivided world.

Because of its material orientation, the West has no literature of its own on the high gnosis of the spiritual path. Now and for the future there is an increasing need among contemporary Western seekers for a clear, authentic guide to the unfolding of higher consciousness. The biography of Upasni Maharaj serves precisely this function, for it accurately portrays the many stages of high illumination and the forceful transformative processes that accompany them as Maharaj himself lived them. There is no abstract theory or conjecture here; the book is the record of Maharaj’s experience as he shared it with his devotees. In essence, everything that can be known of the spiritual path at this threshold of the New Creation is contained in this book. Although details of the path have​ since been clarified, amended, and given forceful new directions for the future by Meher Baba, this is the foundation from which the Avatar’s new dispensation springs. Now, as the two hemispheres merge, the West too has a shining summary of the summit of spiritual learning as it was known and lived by the teacher of the World Teacher. This book arrives as a gift to us from Meher Baba to complement and supplement his universal message and the supreme example of his divine life in this new age now unfolding.

1. Listen, Humanity, ed. D. E. Stevens (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1957), 250.

2. The name Kalki can also be translated as “eternity” or “white horse”.

3. Chapter 60.

4. Here meaning spirituality.

5. M. S. Irani to Desai, 1922, private collection.

6. Ibid.


Presentations at Meherabad, India

Each year at Meherabad the Avatar Meher Baba Trust holds an international conference called “Discovering the Avataric Treasure”. A period or phase of Meher Baba’s life is selected as the focus of the gathering, and over the two days of the conference participants offer presentations about aspects of Meher Baba’s work in that period. The program started in 2010 with Baba’s childhood, and in 2020 it featured the years 1949-1952.  


Murshida Conner was invited to participate in this ongoing program by her friend Gokaran Shrivastava, the librarian at Meherabad. Gokaran is one of the organizers of this annual conference, and after seeing Sufism’s presentations at the 2012 East-West Gathering Commemoration program, which he hosted, he asked if she would consider contributing an essay to their next “Avataric Treasure” event. Every year since she has written one or two essays for Gokaran on an aspect of the Beloved’s life that is up for discussion at the conference. The essays are presented at the conference as Power-Point slide presentations and read to the audience by one of Murshida’s students.

As an intimate friend of Meher Baba’s from their earliest years, Dr. Abdul Ghani Munsiff was an active participant in key phases of Meher Baba’s work. This essay explores the unique role Ghani played both as a friend and as a “tool” in Meher Baba’s work, focusing on the New Life.

An essay on Meher Baba’s first meeting with Ivy O. Duce at Meherazad, India. It was at this meeting in 1948 that Meher Baba appointed Ivy Duce to be the murshida of his reoriented sufism.

The years 1946–1948 include Meher Baba’s important shift in residence from Meherabad, the center of his work for more than twenty years, to a new site about twelve miles away, which he would name “Meherazad”.


At the same time Elizabeth Patterson and Norina Matchabelli were creating what would become Meher Baba’s enduring “home in the West” in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Meher Baba established two new homes, one in the East and one in the West, which he developed simultaneously, though independently, to serve the evolving needs of his universal work.

Presentations at the MBUSC – Byramangala, India

In 1994 Murshid James S. B. MacKie of Sufism Reoriented was invited by K. K. Ramakrishnan and the members of the board of the Meher Baba Universal Spiritual Center in Byramangala, India, to inaugurate the new “Central Structure” at the center. Founded by Meher Baba in 1939, MBUSC-Byramangala is the Avatar’s first and most important universal center.

At that time Murshid MacKie promised the trustees of the Universal Center that Sufism Reoriented would aid their efforts to adorn the interior of the new Central Structure with a representation of Meher Baba’s Divine Theme. Twenty-five years later, in the fall of 2019 that promise was fulfilled when versions of the murals from Sufism’s Sanctuary in Walnut Creek, California, were modified for Indian audiences, printed in India, and installed.

This culminated a challenging project involving technical and logistical issues that included

  • preparing the walls of the open-air Central Structure to safeguard the murals from the high humidity, high temperatures, and monsoon rains of the Indian climate

  • shipping needed materials not found in India from Hong Kong and the U.S. and negotiating their way through customs; and

  • identifying highly skilled craftspeople to meticulously install the murals.

With the completion of this work, the Byramangala trustees invited Murshida Conner to join them in India on the weekend of November 30–December 1, 2019, to inaugurate the unveiling of the sixteen Divine Theme murals and serve as keynote speaker at the celebration.


Murshida accepted this invitation and presented two talks.

(Versions with Hindi, Telegu, and Kannada summary translations are available below.)

Sufi Classes

The Big Picture of Meher Baba’s Advent

In this four-part series, Murshida Conner reviews Meher Baba’s life and activities in the context of his Universal Work. The four classes are presented below.

Murshida Conner begins programs on the “Big Picture” of Meher Baba’s overarching goals in this advent. Meher Baba had an urgent agenda and only seventy-four years to accomplish it. Each detail had to occur in exact sequence. As the seventh or Silent Avatar, Meher Baba integrates the truth at the core of previous religions and lives it. As the Kalki Avatar, he ends the Kali Yuga. As Shiva, he brings about the end and beginning of a vast Cycle of cycles.

Murshida identifies and discusses eleven phases of Meher Baba’s Advent: Spiritual Unfolding; Work with the Eastern Circle; Model Service Projects; World Travel; Work with the Western Circle; The Blue Bus Tours; Work with Masts; Meherazad and Myrtle Beach; The New Life and Manonash; Highest of the High; and Universal Work in Seclusion.

Murshida Conner discusses how Merwan Irani became the Avatar. From his unveiling, he was required to integrate the highest divine consciousness with all levels of Creation and to learn, demonstrate, and master the role of Avatar. She identifies two broad stages of Meher Baba’s work: the Old Life, from 1921 to 1949, and the universal phase, from October 1949 onwards. Meher Baba’s last three visits to America occurred during this universal phase.

Murshida Conner explains that Meher Baba reclaimed gross matter, not by opposing and destroying it, but, as embodied Perfection living the divine life here on Earth, by divinizing it. This process is called “descendent spirituality”. Meher Baba established his prototype for future spiritual paths of return with his reorientation of universal sufism, which he called “Sufism Reoriented”.


Each Thursday, Murshida posts a message for her students in which she describes how local or world events, as well Sufism’s activities, are a reflection of Meher Baba’s manifestation. 


Selected Poetry of Murshida Carol Weyland Conner


Meher Baba asked his American Sufis “to become conversant with the principles of Sufism by reading and studying the literature of Sufi saints, poets, and authors” and to “definitely study all spiritual books, and books of and on Saints and Masters.” Between 1971 and 1981 Murshida Duce produced original dramatizations of key phases of Meher Baba’s life, and these plays were followed in subsequent decades by productions featuring the lives, writings, and teachings of such illumined spiritual figures as Rabia of Basra, Socrates, and Rumi.

In recent years, Murshida Conner has produced an annual series of musical plays under the heading of "Love's Work in America". Each play focuses on one of Meher Baba's visits to the United States, his work with Murshida Duce, and the lessons learned by his American devotees. 

The production below was staged in January 2020.

These two productions were staged over Zoom in 2021 at the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic.

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